Today, many people have to move from one place to another due to many reasons. In geographical terms, it is known as migration. Many of us have heard this term but, only a few people know what is migration? So, in this article, I will discuss what is migration and its consequences, what causes migration and the different types of migration.Thank you for reading this post, don't forget to subscribe!
Migration is a form of spatial mobility of the population between one geographical unit and another involving a permanent change of residence. It is most fundamental to the understanding of continuously changing spatial and regional geography of an area. Migration has many consequences, which have been discussed below.
It is an Instrument of cultural diffusion and social integration that yields a more meaningful redistribution of population. Of the three components of population change, Migration holds a prominent role. It may be internal and International.
Mobility is a more general term, which includes all types of movements of people. It may be permanent, semi-permanent and temporary. Temporary Movements are either cyclic or periodic movements. A cyclic movement includes short-duration trips to Place of Work. Whereas, migration is a permanent move.
It has two categories. These categories are internal and external migration or out-migration.
Internal migrations- When it is across national boundary it is called Inter-national migration. And if, within the national boundary, it is termed as Internal Migration.
International Migrations- In this case, the departure of an individual from a country is termed as Emigration, while arrival into a country is known as Immigration; whereas in case of internal migration, the equivalent terms are Out-migrations and In-migrations.
Other types of migrations
Migration is a very complex phenomenon. The migration of the population in any region is determined, to a large extent by the Perception and behaviour of individuals concerned. Factors controlling migration vary from area to area. But also the significance of the same factor varies from person to person.
Push factors in the source region compel the people to move out to the other areas. Pull factors attracts people to move into an area.
The stimuli for migrations may be social, economic, political or demographic.
1. Economic- It is the prime reason for emigration. The unavailability of jobs compels the youths to leave their native place for places having adequate job opportunities. It is prevalent both at the regional and international levels.
2. Overpopulation- Overpopulation can be defined as an excess of population in an area in relation to resources and available technology. Overpopulation is the most important cause of emigration in the developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
3. Socio-religious causes- In every period of human history, social factors led to large scale emigration. Some of the examples are, the emigration of Jews from Germany, Muslims from Bosnia and Serbia and Myanmar, Kashmiri Pundits from J&K, etc.
4. Demographic causes- The availability of information through education, cultural contacts, and spatial interaction also increases the chances of population migration. The communities having orthodoxy, conservatism, traditions, and customs are less mobile. On the other hand, communities who are more awakened have more contacts and exposures with the outside world
5. Government policy- The government policy also favorably or adversely affects the pattern of population migration. Developed countries have specific population policies and most of them discourage immigrations.
Thus, we can say that the migrations bring about a wholesome change in all spheres of life.
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