Basic information about India 2023 updated

In this article, I have represented the basic information about India with the help of maps and charts, Beside this, I have also covered the famous cities of India and their sobriquets. Before starting the preparation of any competitive exam like UPSC or Bpsc, students must know the basic information of India, physiographic division, drainage system, etc.

Part-1 Basic information about India

Country’s Name India or Bharat
Other namesHindustan, Aryavarta,
Baharat Varsha, Jambudweep
National CapitalNew Delhi
Geographical locationNorth-east Hemisphere
Latitudinal extension8⁰4ꞌN to 37⁰6ꞌN
Longitudinal extension68⁰7ꞌE and 92⁰25ꞌE
The standard time of India82⁰30 E,
5 hours 30 minutes ahead of Green Wich
North-south extension3214km
East-west extension2933km
Land boundary15106.7km
Water boundary7516.6km
Climate of IndiaMonsoon type
Geographical area32,87,263km2
Position in terms of Areaseventh in the world
Share in the world’s total area2.42%
World’s position in terms of populationsecond
Number of states28 states
Number of Union TerritoriesNine
The geometrical shape of IndiaQuadrilateral
Number of states situated
on Tropic of Cancer
Eight states i.e.
Madhya Pradesh
West Bengal
Number of states with
International boundaries
Seventeen states
Number of Major ports in IndiaThirteen
Coastal States and Union Territories of IndiaAndaman & Nicobar (U.T)
Andhra Pradesh
West Bengal
Daman & Diu (U.T)
Tamil Nadu
Lakshadweep (U.T)
Puducherry (U.T)
Physiographic Divison of IndiaNorthern and North-Eastern Mountains
The Northern Plains
The Peninsular Plateau
The Indian Desert
The Coastal Plains
The Islands
Types of soils in IndiaAlluvial soil
Black soil
Red & Yellow soil
Laterite soil
Arid soil
Saline soil
Peaty soil
Forest soil
Basic information about India

Part-2 Basic information about India

The National animal of IndiaTiger
The National Heritage Animal of IndiaElephant
National aquatic animal of IndiaGangetic Dolphin
The national bird of IndiaPeacock
The National Tree of IndiaBanyan Tree
The National Flower of IndiaLotus
The National flag of IndiaTricolour
The National Anthem of IndiaJana Gana Mana
(written by Rabindranath Tagore)
The National Song of IndiaVande Matram
(by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay)
Official languages of IndiaHindi and English
National Script of India Devnagri
National Quote of IndiaSatyamev Jayate
Basic information about India
Banyan Tree
Indian flag: Tricolour

Part-3 Basic information of India

Major Rivers of IndiaThe major rivers of Ganga Drainage System
Ganga (from Gangotri Glacier)
Yamuna (Yamunotri Glacier)
Chambal (Madhya Pradesh)
Ramganga (Garhwal district of Uttarakhand)
Ghaghara (south of Mansarovar)
Gandak (Tibet-Nepal)
Kosi (Himalayas of Tibet)
The major rivers of Indus drainage System
Indus (Near Mansarovar)
Jhelum (Verinag)
Chenab (Bara Lacha La)
Ravi (Near Rohtang Pass)
Beas (Near Rohtang Pass)
Satluj (near Mansarovar lakes)
The major rivers of Peninsular India
Mahanadi (Dandkaryana of Chhattisgarh)
Godavari (Trimbak Plateau in Maharashtra)
Kaveri (Western Ghats)
Narmada (Amarkantak Plateau)
Tapi (Betul district of Madhya Pradesh)
Top five longest rivers of IndiaGanga (2525km)
Godavari (1465km)
Sutlej (1440km)
Krishna (1401km)
Yamuna (1376km)
Basic information about India: Drainage

The climatic regions of India

Koeppen classification: The climate zones in India
Stamp’s classification: The climate zones in India
agro-climatic zones of India map

Famous cities of India and their sobriquets

The city of Golden templeAmritsar
The Blue Mountains of IndiaNilgiri Hills
The Gateway of IndiaMumbai
The city of Palaces in IndiaKolkata
The Venice of the eastUdaipur
The Spice Garden of IndiaKerela
The Diamond Harbour of IndiaKolkata
The city of Lakes of IndiaSrinagar
The Sorrow of BiharKosi river
The Hollywood of IndiaMumbai
The Queen of MountainsMussoorie
The Land of five rivers Punjab
The Sorrow of BengalDamodar river
The Garden City of IndiaBangalore
The Queen of Arabian SeaKochi
The Pink City of IndiaJaipur
The Switzerland of IndiaKashmir
The city of seven Islands of IndiaMumbai
The city of NawabsLucknow
The Scotland of Eastern IndiaMeghalaya
The Kashmir of southern IndiaKerala
The Paris of IndiaJaipur
The Adobe of God in IndiaAllahabad
The City of FestivalsMadurai
The Pearl of KarnatakaMysore
The Pride of RajasthanChittorgarh
The Fruit Basket of IndiaHimachal Pradesh
The City of Temples and Ghats of IndiaVaranasi
The Manchester of IndiaAllahabad
The Pittsburg of IndiaJamshedpur
The Heart of IndiaDelhi
The Southern Ganga of IndiaGodavari river
The Gateway of RajasthanBharatpur
The Manchester of Southern IndiaCoimbatore
The Manchester of Northern IndiaKanpur
The City of FestivalMadurai
Famous cities of India and their sobriquets
India Gate, Mumbai
Victoria Memorial, Kolkata
Hawa Mahal, Jaipur
Golden Temple, Amritsar
Nilgiri hills
Qutub Minar, Delhi
Rajneesh Kumar Thakur:

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